EMPLOYEES WHO WORK FROM HOME know there are great advantages to being able to get up in the morning—or the middle of the night—and immediately start working on crucial projects without the distractions of commuting. It turns out that students enjoy the same advantages of instant focus and constant access when they don’t have to cross town, or cross campus, to get from the dorm to the classroom. For that reason, more and more universities are creating living-learning communities (LLCs), where students live in residence halls that double as spaces for academic and co-curricular activity.
The theory is that as students have concentrated experiences with groups of like-minded classmates, they build stronger relationships and master more knowledge, leading them to be more successful once they’ve graduated. And there’s mounting evidence to support the theory.
In 2010, the Association of American Colleges and Universities published a paper by Aaron M. Brower and Karen Kurotsuchi Inkelas that examined the impact of living-learning communities. The authors found that students participating in living-learning programs applied more critical learning skills, were more civically engaged, and tended to make the transition to college more smoothly, both academically and socially. They also found that students from these programs were more likely to participate in other “high-impact practices,” such as researching with faculty or studying abroad. Those who had lived in such communities during their first years in college “had higher levels of academic self-confidence, were more likely to be a mentor for other students, and remained more committed to civic engagement three years later.” (Read the full study.)
Business schools are among the academic units seeing the most benefit from living-learning communities. Here, we take a look at three schools that have developed immersive programs and spaces where their students can study, make friends, launch businesses, and learn the professional skills designed to turn them into successful leaders.
At Home with Entrepreneurship
The University of Utah opens an ambitious new space where students can work on projects around the clock.
HOW CAN A BUSINESS SCHOOL expand and improve a successful, long-running program? One answer: Bring all the activities home. That was the approach taken by the University of Utah’s Eccles School of Business in Salt Lake City when it built an ambitious makerspace and residential building to draw more students into its entrepreneurship program.
The Lassonde Entrepreneur Institute had been doing well ever since it launched as a single program in 2001 with funding from entrepreneur Pierre Lassonde. “But we knew that there were students we weren’t reaching—who had started businesses but didn’t participate in our business plan competitions, or who considered their businesses more avocations than vocations,” says Troy D’Ambrosio, executive director of the Lassonde Entrepreneur Institute. “By 2012, our question was: How can we engage more students, create more opportunities for them, and connect them with others who want help launching their own projects?”
He and his team interviewed about a thousand current students and recent graduates to discover how they would like to see the program evolve. “Students kept asking us, ‘Where can I find other people who are doing what I’m doing? Where can I build a prototype of a device? How can I launch a business when I’m a student?’ It became clear that the answer was to provide a space that students could access 24 hours a day, so they could eat, sleep, and breathe their projects.”
With the aid of a US$25 million donation from the longtime benefactor, the school embarked on the construction of Lassonde Studios, a 160,000-squarefoot building that combines residential living with an extensive makerspace. The school broke ground in 2014, and the first students moved in during the fall of 2016. Many at the school view the building as an impressive achievement in its own right—but they especially appreciate how it has energized the entrepreneurship program and spurred student engagement in a single year.
The first floor of Lassonde Studios is where much of the activity occurs. It features a 20,000-square-foot innovation space called Neeleman Hangar, which is open to all students at the University of Utah. It includes a prototyping room with 3-D printers, a laser cutter, a CNC machine, and a soldering station. It also features a shop for wood- and metalworking that includes saws, sanders, welding equipment, and bending equipment; a tool checkout room that holds hundreds of different kinds of tools, from hammers and glue guns to oscilloscopes and sewing machines; and an open working space filled with tables, printers, and paper. While the hangar is open 24 hours a day, the workshop and prototyping hours are more limited so there can be mentors and supervisors on hand for safety reasons.
Before the building was constructed, D’Ambrosio and his team visited a range of creative and dynamic spaces, from Google’s headquarters to Stanford University’s d.school. “One thing we consistently heard, particularly from people in the active incubator spaces, was that the physical space wasn’t as important as the culture you build. Why people show up is more important than where.”
Thus, they’ve created a space that is open to anyone and that is always buzzing with activity. In fact, the building hosted more than 300 events during the 2016–2017 school year. These included at least three workshops every week, occasional speakers, special events like the senior review process for the industrial design program, and business plan competitions.
There are also monthly pitch events called Get Seeded, where ten to 12 students get three minutes to make a case for the funding they need to achieve a particular milestone for their businesses. Members of the audience—that is, any students who decide to show up that night—vote on whether or not to approve funding, and money is disbursed on the spot. “Everybody can get funded or nobody can get funded. It’s not competitive. It’s just based on your milestone,” says D’Ambrosio.
The student director of the program opens every pitch session with a quick overview of the program goals and the factors that the audience should consider when voting. “To a degree, this is using the ‘wisdom of crowds’ to determine who gets funding, since we ask the audience to decide if the milestone is well-defined, if the milestone will help prove viability of an idea, and if the plan to accomplish the milestone makes sense,” says D’Ambrosio. “I feel like the audience makes good decisions.”
When students need a break or a bite to eat, they can stop at the café that’s always open within Neeleman Hangar. Even that spot is a hotbed of entrepreneurial activity, because it offers fun learning opportunities for students in the food entrepreneurship program. “Students can apply to our restaurant with menu ideas and be allowed to run a station with their food items,” says D’Ambrosio. The restaurant also hosts events like Guactoberfest, a guacamole-making contest in which students are invited to add their own special ingredients to the basic recipe; judges award a small prize to the winner.
“It’s a very active space,” says D’Ambrosio. “We want to give people reasons to go there.”
LIVING AT LASSONDE
But there’s a great deal happening at Lassonde right above Neeleman Hangar. The top four floors consist of themed residential housing holding 400 students: one floor is devoted to sustainability and global impact; one to products, design, and the arts; one to adventure and gear; and one to games and digital media. During the first year, about 30 percent of residents were business students, between 25 percent and 30 percent were engineering students, and the rest came from more than 40 other majors. Residents ranged from 17 to 45 years old and encompassed students from freshmen to PhD candidates.
That variety was deliberate. In his interviews with students, D’Ambrosio had learned that they wanted to mingle with people who had different skills and perspectives. “Engineering students told me, ‘We want creative marketing students who know how to reach customers with mobile apps.’ A grad student who was designing video games told me, ‘I need ten 18-year-olds to play my games and tell me if they like them.’”
During the building’s first year, each floor had wings devoted to freshmen and sophomores, but each floor also included master’s and PhD students. And the floors were purposefully designed to create spaces and activities that would get students out of their rooms. “For instance, we put each laundry room behind glass, right in the center of the community. It became the water cooler, the place where you just bump into people,” says D’Ambrosio.
Residents also mingled during planned formal activities—and during the informal ones devised by the students as each floor developed its own personality. For instance, on the gaming and digital media floor, students organized a regular game competition open to any resident of the building, while on the outdoor adventure floor, students planned hikes every weekend.
Because the school wanted to create an eclectic mix of students for the first year of Lassonde Studios, it asked candidates to submit nontraditional applications, says D’Ambrosio. “We said, ‘Tell us why you want to be in the building, what you want to learn, and how you want to engage.’ We received some phenomenal YouTube videos. Some students developed video games that showed them here. One woman submitted an Instagram account with pictures of her in different spaces—a restaurant, a law firm, a tech company. She said, ‘I don’t know what I want to be when I grow up, but I think this would be a great place to figure it out.’”
Students must reapply every year for housing at the building so there will be a fresh mix of residents as well as some continuity. About 1,400 students applied for the 2016–2017 year, and more were on track to apply for 2017– 2018. D’Ambrosio says that while many of the inaugural Lassonde residents graduated or decided to move off campus, about 40 percent of them applied for readmission. Close to 25 percent of the 2017–2018 group will be returning residents.
D’Ambrosio expects more PhD students to move into the space in fall 2017. Traditionally, all of the university’s housing is dedicated to freshmen, so there were no mechanisms in place to recruit graduate students into Lassonde Studios last year; as a result, only about 1 percent of the residents were pursuing PhDs.
This year, Lassonde residents will comprise an even more diverse group: seven PhD students, 15 master’s degree students, 39 seniors, 47 juniors, 77 sophomores, and 215 freshmen. Forty-eight percent will be women.
Creating a mixed-age living space caused some headaches for housing and residential education staff members, who worried about security and lifestyle issues, but so far the results have been positive. Says D’Ambrosio, “What’s happened is that we’ve changed the profile of these particular freshmen. For instance, they have fewer behavioral issues and they’re more engaged than students in other residential communities on campus.”
ENGAGEMENT & GROWTH
That level of student engagement was always one of the main goals of creating the new space. While the program is run by the business school, which provides the curriculum, it has a multidisciplinary mission and is open to any student on campus. The construction of Lassonde Studios brought many more participants into the program.
“This year, we had more than 5,000 students participate, whether they developed a company or attended a workshop or just voted on who should get funding in the Get Seeded program,” says D’Ambrosio. “We also worked with more than 300 teams developing entrepreneurial ideas.” By comparison, historically the school has worked with 30 to 40 startup teams on an annual basis.
Why the sudden leap? First, more students were coming up with business ideas simply because they were in the same space. D’Ambrosio mentions two students randomly paired as roommates who spent two weeks brainstorming ideas. When they devised an idea for a dual-purpose phone charger, they prototyped it in Neeleman Hangar, successfully made a pitch for $3,000 in funding, filed a patent, traveled to China to look at manufacturing options, and won $5,000 in one of the competitions.
Second, every phase of the entrepreneurial process moved faster for the student teams. “Things that used to take a year to 18 months were happening in six months,” says D’Ambrosio. “Concentrating resources in a specific space has accelerated the production of good ideas and the killing of bad ideas.”
To handle the increase in volume and speed, the Lassonde team members worked quickly to scale up. They reached out to the local business community to bring in more mentors. They became more efficient at running events such as their Hours with Experts sessions, where intellectual property attorneys, corporate lawyers, and venture capitalists come in for three hours twice a month to see students on an appointment basis.
“We also had to line up a law firm that could go from just talking to students about setting up their companies to actually doing it for them,” says D’Ambrosio. “We brought in an accounting firm that’s helping students set up their books. Over the year, we had six students file patents. Students from a hundred teams filed documents and incorporated companies. One student generated $125,000 in revenue between September and May. All this volume meant we had to backfill in some holes.”
FUNDING FOR LEADERS
All the activities and the amenities carry a hefty price tag. For instance, between business plan competitions and seed money, the program hands out just over $500,000 annually. Some of that money comes from donors, but most is provided by Zions Bank, a regional institution headquartered in Salt Lake City, which has partnered with the Lassonde Entrepreneurship Institute for ten years.
The program also gives out approximately $700,000 in scholarship money to about 160 students. Some of those scholarships go to residents at Lassonde Studios, where the cost of living is about 25 percent more than it is at the school’s older dorms and about 3 percent more than the newer residence built for honors students. But some of the money is available to any student on campus with an interest in entrepreneurship.
The scholarships are funded by an endowment from benefactor Lassonde—and offer students far more than a chance to defray the cost of housing and tuition. Scholarship students also can pursue leadership roles such as running workshops, staffing the prototype facility, and managing competitions. “That’s proven to be an effective method for us to scale up in an economical way, but it also has created great opportunities for students to get experience,” says D’Ambrosio.
For instance, in the first year of the Lassonde Studios’ existence, an engineering student ran the prototyping space, handling the budget and overseeing a team of 25 scholarship students. That team trained about 300 students on safety protocols in using wood- and metalworking equipment; managed the tool and checkout room; and helped users prototype their designs. One day, the engineering student had a chance to tell a visiting alum what he’d learned by managing the space. Says D’Ambrosio, “That was his job interview. He went to work for the alum’s company.”
Giving scholarship students these leadership opportunities has been a key to the success of the program, D’Ambrosio believes. “They can tell recruiters, ‘I ran a competition, I recruited judges, I did marketing, I made a budget.’ It’s a learning experience and it’s also a portfolio-building experience for students.”
Gauging by donor support, student engagement, and interactions with alumni, the first year of Lassonde Studios has been an unqualified success, D’Ambrosio believes. “I can go into that building at 2 o’clock in the morning and there will be 50 people in the innovation space,” he says. “They can work there whenever they want, because they live there. Tying a makerspace to the residential community has been nothing but a home run for us.”
Community of Learners
Oregon state creates an LLC that welcomes all freshmen in the business school.
ONE UNIVERSITY with a lot of experience organizing living-learning communities is Oregon State in Corvallis, which currently runs nine LLCs devoted to specialties that range from engineering to mindfulness. OSU has offered an LLC for business students since 2004, admitting 100 freshmen annually up through the 2015–2016 academic year. However, that changed in fall 2016, when College of Business administrators decided the LLC experience was so valuable it should be mandatory, and they expanded the program to accommodate more than 520 pre-business freshmen.
“The research shows that students in living-learning communities are more engaged in school and more academically successful in college, which transfers to being more successful after graduation,” says Sandy Neubaum, director of student engagement for the College of Business. She has been running the business school’s LLC since 2006.
Just as important, LLCs lead to increased retention, says Neubaum. “When we started analyzing ten years of data about our students who lived in LLCs versus students who didn’t, we saw an increase of 22 percent—from 65 percent to 87 percent—in terms of retention.”
Finally, LLCs make sure that students, particularly freshmen, don’t get lost on large campuses. “OSU has 30,000 students. This year we had 526 students in the business school LLC,” says Neubaum. “The LLC literally brings the college experience down to a community.” By living, learning, and interacting with other students in a close cohort, students finish their freshman year better prepared for school—and life.
A DORM’S LIFE
Each of OSU’s LLCs has a name to go along with its theme, and the b-school LLC is known as Innovation Nation. Members of Innovation Nation are spread over two residences, Weatherford Hall and Poling Hall; an LLC called Global Village is also an option for students interested in international business.
Weatherford is a five-story building that holds 290 students, as well as suites for visiting professionals, a library, and a café. Poling’s four floors accommodate about 300 students. Innovation Nation students also have 24-hour-a-day access to a makerspace managed by the College of Business and shared with the College of Engineering. Housed in a building adjacent to the residence halls, the space is equipped with 3-D printers, laser cutters, CNC machines, design software, and other tools and technology.
“Students can roll of out of bed in the morning and come to class in their pajamas,” says Neubaum. Similarly, they can work on projects in the makerspace at any time of night or day, alongside classmates and neighbors. “They’re living together and they’re learning together.”
Some of the learning takes place formally in required courses that are taught at Weatherford and Poling Halls. These include winter and spring practicums that culminate with students working in teams to run small businesses or community-based projects. The practicums give students a chance to get hands-on experience early in their college careers.
“If students are interested in entrepreneurship, we have classes taught by the program manager of the makerspace,” says Neubaum. “If students are interested in design, they can do builds on campus— using real money, doing real designs.” Other students run microbusinesses that send all their profits to an organization that supports women in Uganda. “They learn the theories, put them in practice, and change lives,” says Neubaum.
Some of the learning is more informal and occurs during co-curricular activities that also are held at Weatherford and Poling. Students are required to participate in three engagement activities every term, which can include visits from senior executives, who attend dinners, coffees and fireside chats; weekend adventure trips that originate at the halls; and regular meetings of business-themed social clubs.
Fun, unscheduled activities also keep the dorms busy, Neubaum says. “We’ll do a study session in the library or take over the classroom and bring in puppies as a de-stressor before exams. If there’s space in the building, we’re using it.”
In addition to a menu of activities, the two residence halls provide many opportunities for students to interact with school faculty and administrators, as well as upperclassmen. Neubaum believes these interactions help prepare them for more successful college careers.
For instance, the seven program administrators of Innovation Nation have their offices at Weatherford or Poling. “As students walk to a classroom, they can drop into a program manager’s office and talk about an internship that’s coming up, or discuss what club they should
join, or get a reference,” Neubaum says. This helps students develop an ease with faculty and administrators, she adds, and means they’re more likely to stay engaged with their professors once they’re upperclassmen.
Meanwhile, because Weatherford and Poling are located directly across from Austin Hall, which houses the College of Business, there’s a constant exchange between students and professors at all three buildings. Among other things, during weekly events called Fridays at Austin, selected faculty give presentations about the potential career paths within their disciplines. These events give students a chance to meet and interact with a high percentage of faculty from the business school while they’re still freshmen.
Freshmen also interact with upperclassmen during some activities sponsored by the LLCs, particularly club meetings, but the college wants to increase these opportunities for engagement. This fall, the school will launch a peer mentoring program, in which second-year students can sign up to mentor freshmen. “We believe that some students, particularly first-generation students, are more likely to go to a peer than a program manager when they’re struggling with a class or a roommate or a financial aid issue,” says Neubaum.
She adds that facilitating these connections with administrators and older students is one way that the LLCs promote student retention. “We would lose some of these students without Innovation Nation,” Neubaum says.
The College of Business also focuses on student retention through an in-depth advising program. One of the students’ graded assignments is to set up meetings with their advisors; students are expected to have looked over potential courses and put together questions for their advisors, so they’re prepared to get the most out of these interactions. Advisors also encourage students to check their grades multiple times during the term.
“We ask them, ‘How are you doing? What’s your plan?’ If they’re doing well, we want them to think about what else they could do to create external engagement. If they’re struggling in a class, we work with them to create a plan for success,” Neubaum says.
Neubaum and her team also bring tutors into Weatherford and Poling Halls for students who need help, and advisors make it clear where other tutors can be found on campus. “We’ve already flagged every student who’s struggling, and we share that information with advisors,” says Neubaum. “This allows us to offer multiple layers of support.”
THE COLLEGE COMMUNITY
Given how successful Innovation Nation has been at nurturing freshmen, it’s not surprising to learn that next year the business school will be adding an LLC dedicated to sophomores. This LLC will provide these students a range of personal and professional development programming that will cover everything from networking skills to résumé-writing tips.
Neubaum thinks any business school could benefit from developing a livinglearning community targeting some portion of the student population. She says, “We know it’s a best practice. We know it’s in the best interests of our students. Why wouldn’t you do it?”
The Residential Edge
University of Central Arkansas Fine-Tunes Its Residential Program.
LIVING-LEARNING COMMUNITIES are a popular feature at the University of Central Arkansas in Conway, where each of the university’s six academic units has its own residential college, as does the honors college. For the past five years, the one run by the College of Business has been called EPIC to denote a program supported by the four pillars of entrepreneurship, public scholarship, innovation, and community engagement. It’s a multidisciplinary program aimed primarily at sophomores who have a strong entrepreneurial bent, and it involves a partnership between the business school and two other academic units on campus.
There are changes ahead this fall, however, as EPIC will become a nonresidential program that moves to the College of Business building so it can accommodate more students. In its place will be a new business-themed living-learning community called Biz@Bear after the university’s mascot. Biz@Bear will be housed in the same spot—the top floor of the newest campus dorm—and admit the same number of students, 86. But it will target freshmen and strive to provide them with a strong foundation in the traditional business disciplines, as well as soft skills like leadership, collaboration, and creative thinking.
AN EPIC START
When it functioned as a residential college, EPIC was designed to attract students “who were interested in applying their knowledge to solve issues in their community,” says Michael Hargis, dean of the College of Business. “The application process gave two question prompts. One asked, ‘Why are you interested in this residential college?’ and the other asked, ‘What are you going to bring to make it EPIC?’”
Students were drawn from every academic unit on campus, with between 30 percent and 40 percent coming from the College of Business, which ran the program with some input from the broader university. Some academic classes and all of the co-curricular programming took place at the residential college.
That programming was built around entrepreneurship, “with a distinct focus on creativity and the innovation process,” says Hargis. In the fall, students learned teamwork and leadership. In the first half of the spring semester, program content switched to applied community projects; in the second half of the semester, student teams were required to start businesses with a microbudget of just $20 each.
As the EPIC program grew in popularity, the College of Business decided to move it out of the residential space and open it up to more students. This fall, Biz@Bear launches in the same space, but with two fundamentally different aspects.
“The explicit focus on entrepreneurship will be dialed down significantly and the focus on professional development will be ramped up,” says Hargis. “We’re working with the career services unit on programming that will help students develop an early-stage mentality about résumés, networking, and interviewing. We’re also building programming around student organizations such as the accounting club and Phi Beta Lambda.”
Hargis adds, “We’ve learned that residential college programming is iterative in nature. We try a lot of things, see what works, and double down on those.”
FACULTY AT HAND
Other components of the residential college will remain in place as Biz@Bear takes shape. For instance, the space will be presided over by a resident master—a faculty member who lives in an apartment within the building, acts as an informal academic advisor, and oversees all the student activity, both academic and co-curricular.
“The resident master isn’t focused on housing policy, but on ensuring that appropriate courses are being offered to college students and that the programming outside the classroom aligns with the central priorities of the residential college,” says Hargis. “For EPIC, the resident master was focused on the four pillars. For Biz@Bear, the role will be more broadly focused on all the functional areas within business. This person will be an advocate for students, creating a solid pipeline between the academic college and the residential college.”
Biz@Bear’s first resident master—a newly minted PhD who was formerly an MBA student at the university—started in July after the school conducted a national search. It can be challenging to find the right people to act as resident masters, admits Ken Griffin, associate dean of the College of Business and rector of Biz@Bear.
“They have to be outgoing and able to interact with students, but they also have to be disciplinarians who can enforce the rules,” says Griffin. “They have to have the temperament to enjoy constant contact with students because they will be around students 24/7. They have to know how to be good listeners— when to advocate for students and when to tell them, ‘You have to suck it up.’ And they also have to have a strong academic background in one of the disciplines of the college.” Hargis and Griffin expect a resident master to stay on the job about four years.
They also expect other COB faculty members to be involved in Biz@Bear. The fact that EPIC was a collaboration among three academic units on campus meant that it wasn’t always clear to faculty what roles they should take in the programming at the residential college. But because Biz@Bear is so closely allied with business, Hargis and Griffin think many opportunities will open up.
“There are two ways faculty can get involved,” says Hargis. “One is by teaching classes in the residential college, not just in the academic building. The second is by serving as mentors or advisors to students on their projects. We’ve made sure faculty are aware of the residential college, and we’re optimistic that many will participate.”
PROS AND CONS
While other parts of the residential college program will change this year, one thing won’t: the advantages offered to students who choose to live there.
Some of the benefits are pragmatic, Hargis points out—for instance, when classes are held in the dorm, students find it easy to get to class. They also have access to coordinated programming that students outside the learning community might be able to find, but not in such an integrated fashion.
In addition, says Griffin, they can participate in activities designed to develop their skills in leadership, communication, teamwork, and other critical areas. They also have access to a wide range of helpers—learning assistants, upper-class mentors, graduate students who act as residence coordinators, and the resident master—all of whom serve as role models to help students develop leadership skills. Says Griffin, “Those are some of the unseen advantages that students might not even recognize at the beginning.”
Other benefits are more intangible but even more long-lasting. “When they live in the same space and go to class with their dormmates, they develop what’s almost a cohort mentality,” says Hargis. “They’re building a student network that will become a professional network once they graduate.”
That deep attachment to a cohort comes with some disadvantages, they admit, because when students live and study with the same small group they can develop a silo mentality. Hargis and Griffin are determined to minimize the chances of that happening by making sure Biz@Bear students take advantage of activities offered throughout the university, not just at the residence hall.
Hargis believes two other factors also mitigate the risk. “First, most students are only in the residential college for one year, so that doesn’t encapsulate their entire collegiate career,” he points out. “Second, because residential colleges are part of campus housing, there’s an infrastructure that makes sure students are exposed to university programming in addition to residential college programming.”
On balance, however, Hargis believes the benefits of the residential college far outweigh the disadvantages. As he notes, “At our institution, the residential college really has helped us attract and retain fantastic students.”
For business schools considering starting their own residential colleges or living-learning communities, these administrators make these recommendations:
1. Be certain the university culture is supportive. “We didn’t build the building and hope students would come,” says D’Ambrosio of the University of Utah. “We built it in response to student demand. We had a more than ten-year history of running an interdisciplinary program before we opened Lassonde Studios.”
2. Make sure programming at the residential college complements academic programming. “Think of ways to integrate activities into the classroom and integrate classroom knowledge into the service projects that students are pursuing,” says the UCA’s Hargis. “We found that, if we had too much programming that didn’t relate to classroom projects, it became hard for students to prioritize. We’ve learned we need to be more deliberate in the types of courses we offer in the residential college.”
3. Ask for student input. “We do a lot of student assessment,” says Neubaum of Oregon State. “We ask how the living-learning experience is, how the academic advising appointment went, whether students joined a club, what other activities they would like to see. Then we iterate. Between the fall and winter term, we’ll make changes based on what students tell us. Next year, we’ll launch a student advisory board so we can get the student perspective on everything we do.”
4. Involve the whole university community. Make sure school leadership is behind the LLC, find ways to get faculty involved, and bring in all other relevant departments, from academic advising to the career services center. “The saying is that it takes a village to raise a child,” says Neubaum. “We think it takes an entire college to educate a student.”
This article originally appeared in BizEd's September/October 2017 print issue. If you have comments or feedback on its content, please contact us at email@example.com.